Multilateral Diplomacy

Image result for multilateral diplomacy

Multilateral diplomacy or multilateralism is a form of conducting a conference between two or more states that shares a common issue of interest. This agreement does not exclusively concern agreeing on subject matters but also allows these states to solve any other of importance on the issue and differences that may be in-between. There are different forms in which multilateral negotiations can take. They include the Artarctictic treaty of 1961, the Kyoto protocol of 1998 and finally the United Nation Millennium Declaration of 2000 that concerned humanitarian matters. Currently, negotiation on diplomacy has indeed realized an increase. Multilateralism started during the time of fast world war in an attempt to end the hostility of European nations on various countries hence helps in preventing the outbreak of another war. The League of Nations was formed due to this real hopes. (Smith, Multilateralism has been seen over the year growing significantly, and this is clearly shown through globalization, matters of international concern have become gradually interconnected and have continued to affect some countries.

European Union consists of 27 member’s states; thus it fits the definition of multilateralism as a form of a form of conducting a conference between two or more states that shares a common issue of interest. Furthermore, these states form part of the organization for economic purposes thus fulfill the term of gathering together on the grounds of similar matters. (Smith, Strength and weakness of the organization.

Due to fast growing and highly competitive economy of China, it has made it unavoidable to build tie with European organizations, although China is not a member of the EU. Currently, China is the largest trading partner of EU and its suitable first source of imports for goods.  With trade and cooperate agreement of 1975, the relationship between the two started, and has seen a gradual increase over the past decade. The agreement was improved in 1994 by exchange of letters that established an extensive political dialogue and finally meetings of high level have been held on either side of the states. The meetings have reflected different levels, ranging from the annual conference of prime and foreign ministers and political directors. (Masters,2016 pg.58) Human rights, poverty, and foreign policy were the main diplomatic issues covered in held meetings.

The respect of human rights remains deep between the two sides. Energy security and climate change go beyond, and it’s the area of concern to their mutual interest between EU and China. Multilateralism diplomacy would offer an understanding of this area that would enforce codes and regulations that are commonly agreedon either side. EU carries the collective interest of individual states and at times the image of the division this deeply fixed interest to probable outcomes.


In conclusion, multilateral diplomacy has enabled negotiations between different countries in finding common ground on particular matters. (Kerr and Wiseman, 2013 pg.123) However, this engagement does not give a mandate for a state to interfere with another’s affairs. The key aspects behind all this are mutual respect and sensitivity of multilateral diplomacy.

















Kerr, P. and Wiseman, G. eds., 2013. Diplomacy in a globalizing world: theories and practices (p. 123). New York: Oxford university press.

Masters, l., 2016. Multilateral diplomacy of the south: the g77+ china in the climate change negotiations. Latin American Report31(2), pp.54-61.

Smith, M., 2016. EU Diplomacy and the EU–China strategic relationship: framing, negotiation and management. Cambridge Review of International Affairs29(1), pp.78-98.



New diplomacy

Diplomacy had experienced improvement which influenced its trial back in the 20th century. The development emerged from various changes in the universe like information revolution, the growth of communication technology, immigration of people and the knowledge and access to mass media. This new diplomacy brought in fresh solutions and innovations in the diplomacy like summitry. Summit meetings started to being held in the First World War, the initial ones being held by the Neville Chamberlain with German dictator Adolf Hitler, ten years later in 1950, Winston Churchill popularized them (Reynolds, 2009). Summits also remained in use in the cold war as a discussion between the superpowers like the USA and the USSR. However, throughout that period summitry was mainly purposed on solving the issues concerning security. After the end of the Cold War, changes have occurred in the international politics whereby new actors and matters emerge and hence old bipolar order malformed.

First, a summit questions the responsibility plus the position for the skilled diplomats besides introducing the heads of state (Alexandroff and Brean, 2015). The specialized diplomats put pressure on their linguistic skills, diplomatic tuition, and familiarity of the country they serve. Nevertheless, it gets more attractive for the media when the governors are present and also emphasizes the reputation of the summit. Besides, politicians express what they are doing to make the world a better place through the summits and also diplomats gets marginalized through them.

Also, summits have introduced multi-actors, for instance, small states plus non-state actors’ discussions. The summits are regularly planned by international organizations like the UN and EU and in which each member country, gets an opportunity to stand up and present their views. To perform global politics and international peace it is of importance to offer a chance to each nation to give their opinions on the issues discussed. The important issues that are emerging in these summits are environmental, economical and social, more problems still exist in states, and hence summits remain the significant way that these issues can get solved through joint solutions (Labrecque, 2010). Furthermore, the summits include non-state actors like NGOs in their discussions like the environmental ones, through this they can also give out their opinions on the issues.

Also, summitry has brought in a significant change in diplomacy through publicity. Through the news concerning meetings of the Summit, journalists get attracted though this may seem contrary due to pressure (Berridge, 2014). Nevertheless, it remains supposed that through publicity a relation with the public opinion gets recognized. Hence the outdated method of undertaking diplomacy that is through secrecy takes no part in the information age where everyone in eager to get the knowledge

Briefly, it is evident that summitry remains an important aspect of the recent diplomacy. It has not only established various necessary changes like introducing the head of state as diplomats but also have made it modern and updated and hence giving new opportunities and solutions for the conducting of global politics by various states.





Alexandroff, A. and Brean, D. (2015). Global Summitry: Its Meaning and Scope Part One: Figure 1. Global Summitry, 1(1), pp.1-26.

Berridge, G. (2014). Cooper, A. F., Heine, J., and Thakur, R. (Eds.) (2013).The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy. Diplomacy & Statecraft, 25(2), pp.397-401.

Labrecque, C. (2010). Jean-Robert Leguey-Feilleux, 2009, The Dynamics of Diplomacy, Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner, 401 p. Études Internationales, 41(2), p.296.

Reynolds, D. (2009). Summitry as intercultural communication. International Affairs, 85(1), pp.115-127.




Crisis Diplomacy

International catastrophe is a well-known term. It is a structure of connections between the governments of dissimilar independent countries in severe war, containing the insight of a hazardously major likelihood of war. The political meetings are required to endorse negotiations of reconciliation, prevent a drenching conflict, ease and discuss the cessation of hostilities and war tenacities among different opposing parties. This requires conversely diplomatic and clever international relations information in controlling complicated worldwide and provincial calamities The Gulf disaster of 1990 was a political disappointment. On several instances, Iraq positioned Kuwait as a misplaced region.


Reasons for Kuwait Invasion

Iraq wanted admittance to the Gulf region, though, after failing to do so in its conflict with Iran, it moved its focus towards Kuwait. Due to comprehensive warfare obligations, the economy of Iraq was in catastrophe and one of its creditors was Kuwait. The Country Iraq wanted their loans to be released, as its government sensed that they forfeited and secured their society to safeguard the capital and interest of Arab states in contradiction of Iranian fundamentalism. The Kuwaitis did not, yet the Saudis did agree to do so, proceeding to reinforce its connections with Iran, which formerly supported Iraq throughout the battle against Iran. However, they went contrary to the participation of Iraq in the Middle East cooperation countries. For the government of Iraq, this was difficult to accept.  In the Gulf region, a war was unavoidable and it was a conflict in which Iraq was likely to fail. There were many motives why this became a fact. It was quite obvious that the president of Iraq Saddam Hussein was turning out to be a soldierly hulk in the Middle East and a risk to the constancy of the complete district. The United States and other developed western countries could not jeopardy the cost of oil from the area. Being the second biggest foundation of oil in the Gulf region, the attack on Kuwait placed the international oil market into turmoil. With Saudi Arabia, the forces of Iraq then assembled their militaries at the border. In turn, this brought the soldierly power of America into the clash. The resources that Middle East regions gave to Iraq were utilized to buy high-tech ammunitions that made Iraq one of the biggest armed forces in the world and a dynamism to struggle with. Kuwait being one of the richest states in terms of its income in the world has free major and minor education, social and health services. All of this was appealing and exasperating to Saddam Hussein, who used his soldiers to take over and attack Kuwait (American Patriot Friends Network, 2004).


Cautionary Signals

From the month of February till August 1990, Saddam Hussein began to send cautionary indications of a forthcoming incursion of Kuwait. During a speech in July 1990, Saddam Hussein indicated to do something operative in a situation whereby the arguments failed to safeguard the people of Iraq. Upon hearing this message, the U.S sent varied hints to Iraq. The government of the United States believed Iraq to be scammed and using alarming words. It opposed that if an attack were to happen, it would be an imperfect one.


The State department of America emphasized the assurance of United States’ vow in safeguarding their associates in the Middle-East, though a different representative of the Department of State mentioned that the Americans did not have a distinct safety or defense promises to Kuwait. In the meantime, the force was applied in Kuwait by Saudi Arabia with the support of other Arab states to resolve its conflict with Iraq. The leaders of Egypt, Jordan and Saudi Arabia involved in dynamic but someway ineffective political discussions. Middle-East countries discovered an explanation that was not accessible to international intrusion. Iraq instigated to amass its crowds on the borders of Kuwait towards the end of July 1990. Frightened by these movements, the formerly president of Egypt, Hosni Mubarak began discussions between Kuwait and Iraq, in trying to overcome outside interference, for instance, the United States and other influences. On the other hand, Saddam Hussein ruined talks within two hours, and on August 2nd, 1990, he commanded the conquest of Kuwait. The government of America together with Russia (Soviet Union) and England condemned the attack on Iraq. The security council of United Nation asked for the removal of Iraqi soldiers from Kuwait on August 3rd, 1990. Hardly any days later in a conference with King Fahd and Richard Cheney UN commanded the American’s military support which the United States settled too. The NATO and American associates sent soldiers to protect Saudi Arabia against the Iraqi outbreak.


The Gulf War

The alliance militaries equipped to face the armed forces of Iraq with employees from England, the United States, the Soviet Union, Germany, Iraq, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Japan. On the other hand, Iraq attained backing from Algeria, Jordan, Palestinian Liberation Organization, Sudan, Tunisia and Yemen. The war initiated with the United States air raids on the air fortifications of Iraq and other links on 17th January 1991. This process concentrated on airborne incursions and was referred to as “Operation Desert Storm”. In February, Operation Desert Sabre was introduced that focused in the direction of the ground assaults. The influence of the outbreaks stunned Iraqi soldiers who later laid down their arms.  George W. Bush confirmed a truce on 28th February 1991 which concluded the Gulf War. Saddam Hussein settled peace relationships that needed him to leave his country of all artilleries of mass annihilation and identifying the autonomy of Kuwait (Perry, 2015).


Diplomatic Crisis

From the moral viewpoint, Kuwait is authorized for reimbursement as a war prey. For this purpose, the postponement of reparation payments is a crucial progress. For the people of Kuwait, the Gulf war endures, as the fortune of a small number of their women and men, who were killed or taken in prison, remains unidentified. According to the KUNA (Kuwait News Agency) out of six hundred individuals who were captured by the forces of Iraq, only two hundred and forty-six remainders have been recognized (Naar, 2015).




Iraq had always considered Kuwait part of its region. The invasion of Kuwait was a tremor and a bash in the back. With the demise of Saddam Hussein’s administration and the Iraqi reconciliation with Kuwait under the novel government. The society has now cohabited with the new circumstances and the general public of Iraq. However, the unstable local uncertainty has prepared Kuwait attention on safeguarding the safety of its public in every manner and concentrate on the future as an unusual breathing in the glooms of the past.










American Patriot Friends Network. (2004). Several Reasons Why Saddam Hussein Invaded Kuwait. [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 28th March, 2017].

Naar, I. (2015). 25 years on, Iraq’s Kuwait invasion remains a source of bitterness. [Online] Available at:[Accessed: 28th March, 2017].

Perry, W. (2015). Operation Iraqi freedom decisive war, Elusive peace. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 28th March, 2017].





Public Diplomacy is the method which international campaigns realize as a reasonable means of communication in international relations. Public diplomacy is a moderately youthful, however famous idea and a field of study, with a storm of writing since turn of the century. The act of public diplomacy, or strategic engagement with individuals went before the reconciliation of its phrasing inside governments and services of outside undertakings. Free strategy as a practice and field of study is liable to more extensive developments happening intact, universal relations, and social orders. Public diplomacy is not thought to be the same as customary government-to-government strategy since it draws in no state performers. Albeit and many policymakers and researchers relate transparent approach essentially with “delicate power” (the ability to convince by fascination), it is significant to both subtle and hard power. In late decades, a clear strategy has turned out to be progressively crucial to the act of diplomacy (Tich 1990).

However, in the recent decades, public diplomacy has been widely viewed as a clear means by which a sovereign nation communicates with publics in various countries to inform and influence audiences across the boarders for endorsing the national interest and progress its foreign policy objectives. In this view of traditional perspective, public diplomacy is seen as a basic chunk of state-to-state diplomacy, by which is meant the conduct of official relations, naturally in private, between official congresses (leaders and diplomats) representing independent states. In this case, public diplomacy includes various activities such as exchange of educational programs for students and scholars and language training; visitor programs; cultural exchanges and events; and television and radio broadcasting.

In addition, according to (Arif, Golan & Moritz 2014) the information distributed around the world is not limited because of the advancement in technology that can convey information around the whole world in minutes for example, with fighting terror attacks in a global real-time age television and also use the internet. Public diplomacy also served both multilateral and bilateral diplomacy in where they are interested in the promotion of trade in quest of investment, and global tourism which is also referred to as labeling and makes interaction and cooperation. The example, therefore, can be seen in the Norwegian and Canadian experience with the Ottawa procedure on landmines that showed how collaboration between the international and domestic and policy stadia in the private and public sphere (Smith 2017).

In conclusion, through treating the main idea and patterns of public discretions, we crave to draw a structure for the analysis and acknowledgment of the capability of Slovenian public discretion and its future directions. Therefore the needs to embrace diplomacy to make progress toward the non-traditional, transparent, synergetic and integrative, straightforward, informative and innovative method for operation is seen (, 2017)





Arif, R., Golan, G. J., & Moritz, B. (2014) ‘mediated public diplomacy: US and Taliban relations with Pakistani media’. Media, War & Conflict, 1750635214538619. (2017). Role of Public Diplomacy | [Online] Available at:    [Accessed 29 Mar. 2017].

Smith, P. (2017). The Hard Road Back to Soft Power on JSTOR. [Online] Available     at: [Accessed 29 Mar. 2017].

Tuch, H.N. (1990) ‘communicating with the World: U.S. public diplomacy overseas’. New          York: St. Martin’s Press.


The Evolution of Diplomacy


Many politicians, journalists, and analysts focus a lot on problems of international relations, foreign policy, and what happens in the world. Some of the questions that they concentrate on include how to implement foreign policy decisions as well as other matters of diplomacy. Outlining the major strategic priorities and approaches help people understand and realize what goes on around them. This article is an analysis of the major way in which diplomacy changed and an analysis of the durability of this change.

Old Diplomacy

Diplomacy is essentially the idea of interacting, maintaining contact, communication and negotiating among states and other international actors. Diplomacy could also mean a way of doing business, a mode of behavior or a particular professional style. Developments in diplomacy prove that negotiations are a useful tool in building and managing international contacts. Diplomacy helps states deal with the external world through proper communication and negotiation (Berridge, 2010).

The idea of diplomacy started in ancient Europe. The Greeks, Italians, and French used diplomacy as a way of communication between different states. The nature of diplomacy changed over the years. Part of the aspects that facilitated this includes the emergence of international organizations in international politics which supported multiple state negotiations more as compared to the bilateral state negotiations. This change facilitated the encompassment of broader nonstate actors. The introduction of international organizations and NGO’s thus caused a threat to the old kind of diplomacy.

Changes in diplomacy

Currently, many states rely on NGOs to solve their issues through conventions and conferences. The United Nations, for instance, intervened in so many disputes around the world with the aim of ensuring peace. The success of the United Nations is a proof of the functionality of the new kind of diplomacy. Developments in diplomacy ensure that NGOs go further than just settling disputes. They engage in ensuring people have their human rights and care for the environment as well. With the new kind of diplomacy, small states and a small group of individuals can have an enormous impact on the world (Brown, 2001). It is democratic, fair and open to different people.

The Ottawa Treaty of 1997 is one of the biggest factors that led to changes of diplomacy. The treaty put an end to the era of a sovereign state. It proved that civil societies, international organizations, and governments could all work together. Lloyd Axworthy was the individual that came up with the idea with the support of the united nation and an alliance of small states and the civil society. In many ways, the treaty marked a significant change to diplomacy (Press Release DC/2593, 1997). It eroded hard power politics and embraced soft power politics that allowed the civil society and small states to impact the world. This aspect differs from old diplomacy which was very secretive and super powers always had their way. Multilateral diplomacy allowed states from around the world to engage in international politics irrespective of their small sizes. The success of the mine ban goes a long way to show the end of the policy of great powers in the system.

Multilateral diplomacy

Multilateral diplomacy is a process that has a connection with ideals and norms about better international justice, legitimacy, and legal equality. It also defines the process of management of international relations between multiple states without the use of a specialized secretariat. One can thus set multilateral diplomacy as a cooperative and collective action by various countries with the aim of dealing with everyday challenges that countries solve collectively. The phenomenon of multilateral diplomacy developed in the 21st century as a development of bilateral democracy (Brown, 2001). Part of the cause for change was the problems of the 21st century which were mostly global in nature. It helps deal with global aspects like the international flow of capital and information, human rights trade, fundamental environmental issues and human rights among others. The above problems required the use of a method above bilateral diplomacy.

Regional Multilateralism allows a powerful state or a small state to convene a select group that can help deal with a challenge in a timely and appropriate manner. It presents a favorable channel to most countries due to the benefits that it offers them. Even the smallest of states get the chance to engage in active participation in forums where they can raise petitions and sign agreements with other countries or even non-state actors. They also receive benefits like technical assistance and democracy enhancement and humanitarian aid.

The global war on terrorism illustrates the benefits of multilateral diplomacy. The cooperation of different states through sharing intelligence, border securities, economic sanctions and law enforcement shows that collective participation can help the world achieve their global goals. The emergence of new centers of power and the urgency of the world needs also highlight the need for multilateral diplomacy (Malloy, & Palermo, 2015). Climate change, the financial crisis, and maritime security are some of the urgent global needs that need countries to come together.

Research indicated the 9/11 terrorist attacks as some of the factors that fostered multilateral diplomacy with the aim of creating a way of tackling transnational threats. The fight against international money laundry also marks another example that encouraged the cooperation of cooperation between both formal and informal institutions around the globe. Multilateral agreements created through multilateral diplomacy offer an advantage of lower transaction costs through the use of central negotiation.

All parties involved get a chance to reach a mutual obligation towards each other. Countries around the world prefer multilateral diplomacy because bilateral diplomacy gave unique advantages to the strongest parties of a negotiation process. This aspect led to suboptimal outcomes from an efficiency or distributive perspective. Multilateral diplomacy thus allows weaker countries the chance of developing and bargaining equally with strong countries which in many cases led to better results.

The increasing interdependence and globalization further stress the importance of multilateral diplomacy (Brown, 2001).  The United Nations is the principal institution for international cooperation, which restored the credibility of the UN and revitalized multilateral diplomacy. Increasing global threats and the interdependence between different states indicates that multilateral diplomacy still has a bright future.


The change from bilateral to multilateral diplomacy is the single most significant change in the nature of diplomacy. Critical examination shows that multilateral diplomacy is the path that many states prefer. Bilateral diplomacy could still have a role to play, but multilateral diplomacy remains the most effective diplomatic strategies while dealing with current global threats. It offers better benefits to all states involved (Malloy, & Palermo, 2015). It could also foster international relations because it creates a fair playground for countries despite the sizes. The effect of globalization on all countries further facilitates the continuity of this kind of diplomacy. The presence of International intergovernmental organizations and their success further promote the idea.


Berridge, G.R., 2010. Diplomacy Theory and Practice, 4 editions, UK, Palgrave Macmillan, pp


Brown, B. E., 2001. What is the new Diplomacy. American Foreign Policy Interests, Vol. 23 pp. 2-23-55

Malloy, T. & Palermo, F. 2015. Minority accommodation through territorial and non-territorial autonomy. United Kingdom, Oxford University Press, pp 34-87

Press Release DC/2593 1997. Ottawa Convention Subject of Special Disarmament Newsletter